The glass eye that wasnt: The Third Heavy Metal Fairy Tale (Heavy Metal Fairy Tales)

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By Zigeng Wang

He came to pick me up morning of my sixteenth. He told me I should go to Coimbatore. The rumour had lasted too long, everyone talked about it; it was the only place to work. The only way to check it was to sink in. I had to for my parents and for my sisters, who were all gone too early. My name is Aruna and I made a promise to do my best. It is my duty to get married. I have nothing more important to do in my countryside. Judged by my neighbourhood, I hang up to this expensive dream because I have nothing more. For my father, nothing would cost as much as selling his land.

Cotton was his life. Once I get there, I will have to do the best I can. I will be precise and quick in the fabrics manufacture, as my mother had taught me. So only then, I will regain my composure. My friends accompanied me to the centre of the village, and we walked along the river. I realized that it has never been so much black since laundries had invaded the region. As my friends offered me a spindle before I left, I quickly understood that it would become a relic to me.

I could see a pick-up truck, in which other girls were already waiting. Five others soon arrived, held in the arms of two brokers. These men travelled around the region since this factory grew. We could finally leave. The driver never spoke, only smirks when observing us with his colleague. I choose to keep my mouth shut. No conversations started, even though the other girls seemed to be the same age as me.

I tightened the spindle in my pocket before I deeply fell asleep. Silence was my refuge. The next morning, I finally arrived in Coimbatore. From far away, the factory was only a massive fog. Shadow disappeared as we approached. Then, I began to understand its scale from a mile away. Cotton fibers formed a perceivable mist through the growing dawn, in which only the towers and chimneys seemed to be able to penetrate.

Following the immense concrete walls with barbed wire atop, we finally arrived at the entrance. Guards in a security post controlled access. From inside, the building looked like a citadel in decay. Different style of architecture appeared to collide as if it had been obliged to be transformed. Ten other workers had piled up on the ground. I was trying to talk to them but the tone of their voices, their expressions, seemed to have disappeared.

There was something quite mechanical about their words; as if secretly, they were telling me that I should not be afraid of this place. I saw then, that all windows had bars. The plant resumed its activity in the minutes that followed. A man came to pick me up and lead me to my place. The more we moved forward, the more the sound of the machines filled along the citadel corridors.

Fibers saturated the air, and my eyes began to glow. We arrived in a room, at the centre of immense spinning machines.

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The man left me after only a brief explanation of the complexity of their operation. Then begun my apprenticeship, from which I would never be able to escape, in the middle of these macabre mechanical choreographies. Days looked alike. Their length was always longer. We ate every day at the same time with the workers while several guards watched our every move. Some would disappear from one day to the next. A worker lost four fingers on the first day of her arrival; despite mentioning she had mentioned the deficiency of her machine many times, to her foreman.

Nobody seemed shocked about what happened to her. Her hand was bleeding and the carding machine was being cleaned as she disappeared in the arms of two men. We worked from am to midnight; prayer was my only time to escape. Fear invaded all the girls. I sometimes felt I could no longer recognize their faces. We were all becoming the same. Several months after my arrival, a chief came to take me to another extension.

I got accustomed to the continuous hiss that had bothered me during the first hours of my stay. We went to a highly remote part of plant, wandering through this maze of hallways. Machinery was completely different in the new room. The Chief did not want to explain it to me. Then, I understood what he wanted. I tried to get to my spindle but he stopped me violently. I shouted again and again… Nobody heard me. I was his prey, the object of his impulsive insanity.

Time was endless. Before exiting, he found my spindle and poked my index finger with it. He said he would stop the day when each of my fingers will wear his signature. He finally slammed the door, just before I passed out, alone in this room that already seemed to be my Tomb. I felt very blank, invaded by a sort of torpor that I though was due to the mechanical heat. I was starting to look like the other workers of this plant; half lethargic, browsing every day the same corridors, repeating the same movements.

Why were both doors always locked? Sometimes, I had the feeling that this place was designed to confuse the workers and to trap those who ventured there. All of us were forever branded. I will never be able to get married, as no man will want me. This is why, for me as for these hundreds of women, going back is now impossible. I have to stay here. My tummy is growing now. The child is only my way out. On one condition though: he must be a boy….

In India, being born as a girl is a damnation. The only hope girls have is to be able to get married. However, they must pay a dowry, in spite of the prohibition of this practice over fifteen years ago. The textile industry in this country is booming. This story shows its bloody gears. The little girl fell into a wedding dream before hoping to have a boy.

She had only one wish: to forget regretting her birth. Once upon a time when Venus was in conjunction with Jupiter in the third house, mysterious holes appeared in the great desert. In that mystery which became a myth, there laid a city. This city was hidden deep under the desert surface with only exit marks visible on the outside. The Desert people lived inside because of the unbearable heat of the outside world. But that was a dark world for them to live in and they all dreamt of a sugar coated better place. Amongst others, one man stood out.

This was a man called Joaquin and he was the ruler of everything and everyone. He liked to sit. A lot. He had plenty of chairs. One chair for him to have breakfast, one for lunch and the biggest one for dinner. The one standing alone was for sitting and thinking. He is a hedonist, a conformist, a lover of everything beautiful!

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  • Thus Beauty is in the eyes of others. Always groomed the same way — from front to back, then left to right, never missed a spot. Tightened tight and ironed right, his walk was gracious with manners of a king and posture of a winner! He wants to create and He wants to create what He likes the most! He has one vice. His biggest vice is Food. He had real estate properties all over the plate. You name it. Big, small, flat, round, old, new, angled, blue. One day, he got the chance to make a city tailored by his own measures. He wanted to build his own sweet sin called Sukkar. So they started building it.

    It was yet to become the sweetest city on the plate. But, as time passed by, who would have thought something sweet could become so bitter. The people of Sukkar were building it for days, weeks, now months — working even on weekends! Yet not being allowed to have a piece of that cake. No one, but the little girl. Are you expecting someone? Can it be true? It was the sacred prophet who appeared above. The sacred prophet of the night sky and guardian of love gave the little girl a recipe. But not any recipe. The prophet whispered to her ear a thing or two and blew fairy dust in her face.

    These were words of wisdom. Now the little girl knew what had to be done for the careless Joaquin to be gone. So they started building the finest, highest, sweetest castle ever baked! By the time the castle was done, spring was gone. The summer sun stroke above the peak. Finally — Joaquin saw it. He could not hide his excitement!

    An enchanting art crafted by hand, and it was all for Him. In His honor. He was so excited, he was blindsided. He started to eat the castle in all its glory.

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    Bite by bite, piece by piece, slice by slice… He reached from the top on down eating everything on his way. And He liked to eat — A lot! Sukkar was vanishing before our own eyes! The desert was revealing itself more and more with every bite. What was about to happen next no one could foresee. They all stood there in silence with eyes wide open waiting for what they all wished for, but never have guessed would happen! His weight pulled him down as he disappeared in seconds.

    As something disappears another comes to fill its place. Was it just a mirage? No one wanted to question. All that was there now was a peaceful oasis. It gave everyone exactly as one needed, sometimes giving a little more. The origination of the city began long before the world had witnesses, and when there were finally witnesses there was still no speech, and when there was still no speech, well, communication of the past was entrusted to objects: An upturned stone, a fallen tree decaying, The negative of a thing stamped in mud — the short and longterm memories of the material world.

    So if time progressed before there was human record of its passing, its preservation and transmission owed itself to the substance of things, like frozen speech. But do you see what this means? It means we invented the city long before we invented history. So what a responsibility the city held! All the time recording before we ourselves thought to archive.

    Yet if the ancestry of the city were chronicled in a book, consider the endless chapters one would have to thumb through to reach pages written in an intelligible language. Without a translator, those first roots of civilization would remain eternally buried beneath sediments of time. But translation is my task, for I was born in a time long before time itself was born. Before anyone thought to read the patterns of this world to invent the day, the year, the century and look to the sky for proof of their passing.

    You might call us wanderers, vagabonds, vagrants: creatures too brutish to be called human yet to human-like to be called beasts. But live like one of us for a moment and feel hunger more deeply than you have ever felt famished, more fearful than you have ever felt afraid.

    The same is true for thirst, for sadness, for lust. For us however, this was simply what it meant to be. My ancestors may not be much to speak of now, but in my day we were pioneers and visionaries. We looked into the blackness of the unknown and lit a fire there. And I was there for the germination and the bloom. In other words, in my lifetime I lived to see the birth of the city. Even before the city, though, we never lacked shelter. Deep in the caves, up in the trees, among the brush — we were in fact adequately protected. But the world in which we lived was not a place meant for standing still: we had to hunt and we had to forage, which meant that where the animals went, where the fruits and grains grew, there we went also.

    Even the most hospitable cave or potable spring could be at best a temporary dwelling place. We, like everyone in that time, operated under seemingly natural laws that determined the numbers within wandering groups such as ours: it was simply not possible to maintain a gathering as large as a village, let alone a city. The developments were slow. For instance, the simple way that water puddles in footprints hardened by the sun stunned me: could we not shape vessels from the earth? The possibility to then stock and preserve, to eat.

    Before long we were a band of capable potters.

    Soon after this, we chanced upon a separate group of wanderers. These were seldom peaceful encounters, but they at once noticed the various pots and carafes among our possessions, things they had never seen before. We showed them the many uses of a single pot, and they offered to teach us how to prevent meat from spoiling if we would teach them how to turn the soil into containers.

    Thus from them, we learned the virtues of salt — and moreover, they decided to join us in our wandering, doubling the size of our group. I could name many other things, but I must tell you that the real development, the true impetus of our becoming, happened during a violent storm one night when it seemed the sun itself was cracking whips across the sky, ropes of light that split through the heavens and came crashing to the ground.

    One of these lights struck a group of nearby trees causing them to rupture with light from within. Terrified, we ran until we felt safe. Seeing that the light had not moved from the trees, but remained, shivering in bird-like wings, we cautiously approached and felt the warmth spread out from the light.

    We had discovered fire. As we gathered around it, we soon discovered the inborn magnetism that draws together man and flame, for within days thousands of wanderers had joined our circle. The cold was all the worse for those who now knew of heat: there was simply no leaving the presence of the fire.

    And just as encountering others had once led to knowledge for us, these new wanderers, barbarians now tempered into civility, carried within them new knowledge as well. Chief among their ideas were those that concerned shelters of a more permanent nature. And because no man wanted to distance himself from the fire, we stacked dwellings on top of one another, building upward in the likeness of the flame. We began to see fire in many places. Yes, in the red dawn of fire new discoveries seemed to arise by the second, as if we were evolving many times over in the span of a single lifetime. And fire, it turns out, was only the beginning.

    And when we learned how to transport fire from one place to another, it was then that our first sister cities were founded. With our budding yet nascent creeds, we were each naturally drawn to prefer one settlement over another. Others, however, having observed that the primacy of fire lies in its base and noticing the tendency for heat to disperse evenly through solid material, thought it best to inhabit the earth as our cave-dwelling ancestors once did.

    While still others, who felt then as many feel now, were simply born to be companions of water, and so they carried the torch of their city to the sea. From the very first city, the city of fire, came the city of air, the city of earth and the city of water; from these came more cities; from them, civilization. I have done my best here to let them live on through my words and my hand, knowledges that quickly followed the establishment of these cities, knowledges that sometimes forget the city altogether.

    But there is a bloodline of the elemental cities that still remains. I lay a hand on a tree and understand the seed from which it germinated, I put an ear to a shell and know the waters in which it calcified. We carry our origins within us, even if it requires another to read them. There was a group named the Doomers. When the environment collapses, the Doomers said, so shall civilisation.

    Their response in the face of apocalypse they faced was to ignore civilisation to death : to prepare for want of a better term their families and communities for the imminent fall of civilisation; to survive in remote settlements; to live apart in isolation. The Doomers took control of an oil rig named Prirazlomnaya , nestled far above and away from the world in the shifting arctic ice floes. Their capturing and reinstatement of the rig was symbolic, of course, as they wished to turn the tools by which humanity destroyed its world, and itself, to their own purposes.

    And so it was that the Prirazlomnaya became the first of the Doomers settlements. An impenetrable fortress surrounded by ice, frozen in the glow of the aurora borealis — the northern lights. Now these paintings, furnishings and luxuries were souvenirs of the world they had left behind.

    They were not pursued, of course: the attention of the world was elsewhere, attempting to undo, then contain, and finally adapt to the changing realities of their climate. Looting always prefigures catastrophe, and before long the world was embroiled in desperate war and turmoil. The seventh room, the dormant drilling tower at the centre of the rig whose tendrils still went far down into the earth below, was left in darkness. Onto the face of the tower the Doomers had installed a giant ebony clock-face formerly of a grand City Hall, no doubt , which served as centrepiece of the new community.

    Within these rooms, the Doomers celebrated their new home, and rejoiced in their cleverness and foresight in escaping the fate of the world outside, which by now was in a dire and desperate state. They had long known the. In the appropriated apparel of the now-vanquished rich, the Doomers held an extravagant dance, a lavish ball through their six vibrantly coloured rooms.

    Some even ventured into the darkness of the seventh room, dancing carefully and slowly around the oil well; nervous laughs echoing metallically through the chamber. Every hour, the great clock adorning the tower would strike, startling the dancers as chimes resonated through the metal halls they promenaded within.

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    The clangs resounded through the guts of the rig, forcing dancers to a standstill as long reverberations spread to its every corner. Each time the clock struck another hour, the clanging seemed to last longer still, accompanied now by the creaks and moans of old metal. But when the chimes stopped the Doomers rejoiced, and partied, secure in the richly ornamented confines of their fortress; warm, well-supplied and fed.

    The Prince Prospero looked at the community he had helped create and was glad at its prospects. He knew that life could go on here in the arctic wilderness, and though humanity had almost sealed its own fate, he had helped avoid total catastrophe. Eventually, the clock struck midnight, its chimes amplified with each strike by the chambers of the Prirazlomnaya. The vibrations in the floor and walls grew into tremulous shudders, and old frozen pipes cracked and split as they were shaken in their holdings.

    On the twelfth strike, the rig, and all its rooms and occupants, shook one last time before slowly falling into a deep and echoing silence. The Doomers, and the Prince, calmed as the rig settled around them. Suddenly, and with a deafening roar, the tower erupted into life. Oil burst upward from the well, spraying wildly across the rig. The clock-face was thrown from its fastenings.

    The rooms were painted black, their occupants suddenly in desperate struggle. Some tried to approach the well to attempt to stop the flow, but were drowned in the thick tide of darkness. Some tried to flee, but had nowhere to go as the rooms filled with the unrelenting oil. Some tried to prize doors and windows open, but most had long iced over, and those that did get outside froze in the arctic cold, their gowns and suits spread like phantoms around them.

    The Prince watched horrified as the world he had built succumbed to the darkness heaving from its centre. He stood transfixed as the oil washed over and into him, the colours of the ballrooms refracting on its glistening surface before turning a deep, unyielding black. And Darkness and Decay and the Black Gold held illimitable dominion over all. This statement consisting of pages each signed by me is true to the best of my knowledge and belief and I make it knowing that, of it is tendered in evidence, I shall be liable to prosecution if I have willfully stated anything in it which I know to be false, or do not believe to be true.

    The store usually closes at p. When the customers are cleared and the store is about to close, I always hear loud noises as if the place is still crowded with people. All the screaming, crying, and quarreling caused me to question my own hearing. Since the first day I came here, I have been suffering from these noises, which only occur at closing time, and I fear this moment very much. One day I was locked in the store by accident, and those noises came again. I noticed that they came from below the escalator. This is the emergency escalator and is usually locked.

    Curiosity drove me to push the button, and surprisingly, it opened. I stepped in without realizing it, and felt myself being led to another world. The escalator went slowly upward and stopped sometime later. When the door opened, I was shocked by what I saw: there was a tower hidden in the Empire State Building! I witnessed workers alongside the endless assembly line of iPhones; supervisors running around; those who jumped off the tower to commit suicide being caught by a huge net and sent right back to work; and those exhausted to death dragged to the end of the workshop and thrown out of the cave.

    Dead bodies slipped into the already packed morgue, and butchers chopped and cooked them before serving the meat to the living workers as food. The black market for electric products was selling E-trash that came from unknown sources. A prison stood above the school. Someone in the tower told me the most dangerous criminal was. I would have never seen the night clubs and sex shops hidden in the police station if not led by a policeman to the tower. From a capitalist point of view, Imperialism is characterized by the exploitation of unequal geographic territories—utilizing asymmetrical spatial relations for the accumulation of capital.

    Nowadays, this structural tension has been manipulated or hidden in many invisible dimensions. After the Cold War, the acceleration of capital flows and cost reduction in telecommunication and transportation fueled the continual expansion of offshore production. With coerced consumerism and cultural output, the manifestation of imperialism has become more and more secretive and complex.

    In this context, where is the boundary between Dongguan and New York, two cities that are closely linked but also fragmented by capitalist activity? The shape of the tower is bounded by the limits of the Empire State Building. This project tries to express these contradictions and tensions in the geographic landscape of capitalist activity, the indoctrination and domestication of neo-colonialism, the questioning of globalization and the predicament of human beings.

    Once upon time in the Zero-carbon Hedonistic Era, the entire world was finally sustainable. Clean-energy technologies were abundant and ubiquitous. Large quantity of energy-efficient light bulbs, wind turbines, electric car batteries and solar panels would come with a price, however. Nearly all of the Rare Earths were discovered in the 19 th century but their use mostly proliferated in the Zero-carbon Hedonistic Era because of their association with green technologies.

    Not alarmed by the possible tragic outcomes of the further mining of these minerals, the world celebrated their delirious consumption with more car batteries and solar panels until very little of these minerals were available. Soon after the depletion of this precious resource was officially announced, in an attempt to prevent major geopolitical conflicts, United Council of Rare Earths was established to promote international co-operation regarding this matter.

    In its inaugural meeting, the Council members drafted the text of the Declaration by the United Council of Rare Earths, which was signed by all countries. After a long meeting, the unanimous vote was held to ban further Rare Earth mining and to build a museum that would house and preserve remaining Rare Earth mines of the world, and would carry their legacy to future generations. The museum was named as the Museum of Lost Volumes. The Museum of Lost Volumes was composed of many rooms.

    Each room of the Museum was dedicated to different minerals while exhibiting a particular spatial quality regarding these mines. The first room was divided into three parts and was connected with a single bridge that looked over the three different minerals. The bridge felt so small in this large space, and so did the visitors.

    W. R. S. RALSTON, M. A.,

    While the mines were placed into the underground exhibiting the extraction processes of how they are removed from the earth, the visitors walked through the bridge observing them. The section profile of these colossal rooms was a monument to the mines as well, as they resembled the profile of a particular resource extraction. While walking along the bridge, the visitors felt as if they were floating in between the gigantic hollowness of the volume underneath and the massive spatiality of the ceiling above.

    Admiring the commemoration of these mines as volumes, visitors left the room completely mesmerized. The next room of the museum showcased inverted pieces of Rare Earth mines from each of the seventeen mineral types that were placed carefully in preserved glass boxes. Varying in size, shape, and texture, each mine piece was filled with different stories and different lives.

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    • Visitors walked from one box to another, analyzing these glowing mountains so up close. One child put his nose up to the glass box, trying to get a much closer view to one of the minerals. The mother looked thoughtfully. The final room was a large continuous surface from which large platonic volumes were carved out. While each volume represented a particular Rare Earth mine in the world, the mine sizes were compared to one another in scale within the space of the room.

      Walking along the edges of these volumes, one visitor thought about the amount of neodymium extracted from one particular mine because of the sheer mass of the volume represented. In this room, the represented lost volume was not bounded by a box or had to be viewed from a bridge like the other rooms. Having the chance to walk on the actual matter and to be able to touch it was in itself a sublime feeling.

      The surface of the mineral felt smooth, but looked textured. The visitors were both astounded and heartbroken that these volumes were all lost. ONCE upon a time, on an uninhabited Brutalist serviscape buiding called The Archipelago on the shores of Lake Algonquin, there lived a Baba-Ji from whose Fedora the rays of the sun were reflected in more-than-oriental splendour.

      And one day he took pen and paper and cursor and pointer, powerpoint and prezi and made himself with the hlp of his partner Abba-Jan, one building which was two universe across and an earth thick. In those days the Rhino skin fitted quite tightly. There were no wrinkles in it anywhere in Super Photo-Reaist fashion. All the same, this Architecture had no manners then, and it has no manners now, and it is quite likely it never will have any manners.

      The Rhino shrieked, Abba-Jan swerved and Baba-Ji left that onion skin journal out in the rain and climbed to the top of the Next Tallest but One building in the world like a palm tree, with nothing on but his Fedora, from which the rays of the sun were now reflected in even more-than-oriental but senior splendour. The Rhino was now so cunning and clever it spiked that Altogether Uninhabited School of Architectural Thought on the horn of its self-determining software, and forced others to wave their therapy puppy tails and exit the Desolate and Exclusively Uninhabited Interiors, which used to be schools of architecture.

      But Baba-Ji came down from the tallest palm-tree buiding in the world, Abba-Jan entered an alternative reality and they struck out the rendered life and began reciting the following Unreachable Chora, which, as you have not heard, I will now proceed to relate:. So THIS is the picture of Baba-Ji, the professor and Abba-Jan and the young Whippersnapper Speedalong beginning to have their Dundee cake and eating it and rhinoing the jingo out of all architecture-to-come on the Uninhabited Dark Side of the Archipalago on a very cold day; and this is the picture of the Rhino softwaring its skin and crashing down from the Altogether Uninhabited Architecture of the Three Firm Zeros, which, as you can truthfully see, is all slickly Rocky VI.

      This picture shows that quite clearly. Baba-Ji found it, Abba-Jan sketched it, Speedalong fed it and they all kept the building on Archipelago and used it to play with a new version of Strictly Adult Minecraft. Because, five weeks later, there was a Polar Vortex on Lake Algonquin and everybody put on all the layers of clothes they had.

      Baba-Ji put on his hat and Abba-Jan put on his gloves; but the Rhino finally shed its shiny, bubbly skin, abandoned architecture as we know it and carried what was left of the rays of sunshine and splendour over its shoulder as it went into a New Cave to avoid the cold. The Rhino of course was misunderstood and said nothing whatever about architecture-to-come, the School of Architecture now known as The Cheese Factory.

      As the envelope was slipped over the old building we kind of know the result: the Rhino has never had any manners, then, since, or henceforward. The Rhino, not content with ruling the Photo-Realist World got even more frisky, experimented with three more firm zeros and waded straight into the ice waste and blew bubbles through its nose, leaving the architectural skin stretched out on the frozen lakeshore. Presently Baba-Ji, one of those Masking Tape True Critics of Architecture, came by and found the skin, and with Abba-Jan they smiled one smile that ran all round their faces two times as around all the buidings that were now being demolished.

      Then Baba-Ji danced three times round the skin of architecture and rubbed his hands. Then he went to his camp and filled his fedora with Dundee cake-crumbs, for Baba-Ji never ate anything but crumbs, and never swept out his camp. He took that skin, and he shook that skin, and he scrubbed that skin, and he rubbed that skin just as full of old, dry, stale, tickly cake-crumbs and some burned currants as ever it could possibly hold.

      Then he climbed to the top of his Palm-Tree Architectural Wafer-Thin World called Packard and waited for the Rhino to come out of the digital water and put it on. Baba-Ji managed to get cake-crumbs all over the Rhino, they got into the skin and affected greatly the after effects; they went into all the layers and Baba-Ji smiles now when ge thinks how they will tickle the Raven when she enters the Rhino again.

      The black things on the Archipelago are all out on the frozen lake and are bits of ships and architecture, nights and dawns that got wrecked going down the Red Sea; but all the architects apparently were saved and went home without quite knowing it. And without ever telling their story! The black thing in the water close to the Lakeshore is not a wreck at all, it is the Raven and the Rhino making jingo with each other and another Three Firm Zero; they are cavorting in digital heaven without their skins. They were just as black underneath as they were outside.

      And the Rhino pulled it off quite unlike anything had gone before. It buttoned up Architecture with the Three Zero moves as it tickled like cake crumbs in bed. The Rhino wanted to scratch this magic, but that made it worse. Then the Rhino ran back to the Palm-tree World Hotel and rubbed and rubbed and rubbed against it. It rubbed so much and so hard that it rubbed the skin of the Architecture into a greater and greater fold, and another fold underneath, where the buttons used to be but the buttons were also rubbed off.

      They were inside this skin and they tickled. So Baba-Ji, Profoessor for Unknown Life, days numbered in the onion skin world of journals, writing and Poems to the Raven, came out of the tallest palm-tree hotel in the world, wearing his Fedora, from which the rays of the sun were reflected in more-than-oriental splendour, packed up his cycle, and went away in the direction of Orotavo, Oudawa, Algonquin, away from the Upland Meadows of Arriviste Architecture, away from the Altogether Uninhabited School of Architecture, the Czarina and the Marshes of Stayput.

      A woman in her 20s has died from falling off the sky at the cross road of Inokashira Dori at Shibuya in Tokyo. It happened shortly before UTC on Tuesday. It is believed that the woman was dropped from a ripple on the sky. Within 30 minutes, witnesses pointed out that a group of 16 spirits dressed in white mofuku arrived at the site. They picked her up and put her on a Japanese sedan chair. They lighted up the red lantern on the top and then marched to the west along the Inokashira Dori, few minutes later they gradually disappeared in front of the witnesses eyes. The Tokyo police department and scientists are looking for a logical explanation for the event.

      A similar event has been reported 10 years ago, in which the deceased-to-be woke up mid way and found himself in a hospital. He is Kazuaki Hattori who is now living in Kyoto. He felt his body was losing weight as the deck was rising. He was picked up by a huge crane when he reached the top.

      He was put on a wooden plate runs on a conveyor belt. He was being weighed, cleansed by water and wiped by a huge towel. He was then dressed up in mofuku by machine hands and makeup was applied on him while he was transferred into a coffin. The air is hot and humid, I can only hear the sound of wave. As I feel myself rising higher and higher, I can see light casting from a small opening on the top.

      Inside, a bunch of people are floating aimlessly, and one of them look exactly like me. All of a sudden, I am dragged to the top into the bright light. It is because according to the Law of Conservation of Energy, in an isolated system, the total energy is conserved. Every sound wave, every vibration, every heat energy of you will be remained but transmitted after you died. The one that he saw was actually himself in the transit world. I think she is already dead, I saw her body dissolving and the pieces float like a snowflake and shine like a star.

      I try to walk closer to her and before my hand can reach her, everything in front of me starts to fade, and I find myself laying on a bed in a hospital. Nishijima San stated that the atoms of our bodies are traceable to stars that manufactured them in their cores and exploded these enriched ingredients across our galaxy, billions of years ago.

      For this reason, we are not figuratively, but literally stardust. This is why Hattori San saw the body of the girl fragmented into pieces of stars. But one thing is sure, that is when we die, we all return to be stardust. The JP News report. With over 1, participants from 65 countries around the world, the Fairy Tales competition has cemented itself as the largest ideas competition in the industry. The jury also awarded 11 honorable mentions. Order Fairy Tales Volume 2. By Zigeng Wang. Father passed away. Thwarted again, Phineas maintained his search for food.

      This is surely my end! Clients became increasingly demanding and the controls more and more bombarding: Doors a certain size to be measured on inspection Always to be to be opened in the same direction Precise heights for steps with specifics for different lands E. A Steam Genie appeared. Excited once more, Tricha and Wire went to work on making models: They cut rectangles and triangles. The empty page was the workshop wallpaper once more. Honorable Mention. By Chanel Dehond. The multiverse implied the existence of alternative histories and futures. The black hole was the method of traversing the multiverse.

      The discovery was originally discounted as error, as. The wavering was that of a black hole in the pineal gland. There existed a black hole in the mammalian brain, and the black hole was the method of traversing the multiverse, thus , the discovery of the black hole in the mammalian brain indoctrinated dreaming as a voyage into the multiverse. Allegories of Home. They become my: Rituals Contemplations. My home is my innocence, my security, my belonging, a return to my earliest thoughts I had gone. Hundreds, thousands of banners and flags fluttered in the wind, which brought with it the smell of a nearby harbour, water, life … — That which gets to you my friend, is the wind across the city.

      A city that holds this duality that makes it so outstanding… — My friend, we are in Despina, the city on the boundary of two great deserts. And now I will tell you the story of how I got here, how I discovered… — … the city! I still remember the salty air and taste … — Yes, sand and salt always covering my body, cracking my lips and hands. But, joining forces to sing one last goodbye to my proud vessel, I opened my eyes again.

      And then I saw it. What About Sleeping Beauty. On one condition though: he must be a boy… In India, being born as a girl is a damnation. It is, in the broad sense of the term, a bricolage, which spans a multitude of differences. Each band must distinguish itself from other groups, at least for commercial purposes, which means that there is a multitude of "signature sounds.

      Finally, the genre of heavy metal has, over the years, become more diverse. Yet, for all the observable variety, there is a code that during the period of crystallization came to define the genre in such a way that it could be applied to generate new works exemplifying the genre and to identify works that fell within it. That code did not define the rules for generating every work that might fall under the rubric "heavy metal," as that term could be most generally used.

      But it demarcated a core of music that could be called, indisputably, heavy metal. When heavy metal is called a musical genre in this study the term "music" is used broadly to include not only arrangements of sound, but other aesthetic and signifying elements that support the sound, such as visual art and verbal expression. The genre, in this sense, is a total sensibility based on sonic patterns but not exhausted by them. The codes provide the form of the sensibility and will be discussed here under the headings of aural, visual, and verbal d--ensions of heavy metal.

      Other aspects of heavy metal's code, which relate more closely to the social transaction that constitutes the genre, will be discussed in the chapters on the artist, the audience, the mediators, and the concert. The Sonic Dimension The code for heavy metal involves several sets of rules that can be applied to generate a sound identifiable as heavy metal music.

      By Alexander Culler and Danny Travis

      Just as rock and roll adopted many of the rules of rhythm and blues, exaggerating or simplifying some of them in the process, heavy metal's code has deep roots in the rock from which it emerged, specifically the blues-rock and acid-rock traditions. Defining the code of heavy metal's sound does not describe that sound as it is experienced.

      As the often repeated phrase has it, Heavy Metal: The Beast that Refuses to Die 23 writing about music is like dancing about architecture. Critics of all stripes constantly resort to similes and metaphors, often based in the other senses-especially taste and sight-when they discuss a piece of music. Much of the discussion of music in sociology is based on analyses of lyrics, because the verbal element is familiar turf for sociologists. However, understanding the heavy metal genre requires comprehending its sound. After reading the following discussion, the reader should listen to paradigmatic examples of the genre.

      The essential sonic element in heavy metal is power, expressed as sheer volume. Loudness is meant to overwhelm, to sweep the listener into the sound, and then to lend the listener the sense of power that the sound provides. Injunctions such as "crank it up," c Heavy Metal rock tradition, heavy metal guitarists are required to demonstrate technical proficiency. This emphasis on ski1 contrasts with the punk code, which emphasizes the simplicity of playing, the idea that "hey, anybody can do this, I just learned it two weeks ago.

      Guitar solos are an essential element of theLheavymetal code. A solo is a part of the song in which the guitarist does not compete with the vocalist, but may still be backed up by drums and bass. It is a rhetorical element of the code that underscores the significance of the guitar. The solo was a feature of blues-based rock. According to Eric Clapton, solos originated with Cream. The newly formed band had gigs to play.

      With only about thirty minutes of original material, they stretched it out by doing improvisational solos. The heavy metal drum kit is far more elaborate than the drum kits employed for many other forms of rock music. Like the guitarist, the drummer has a wide range of sonic effects to deploy, allowing the rhythmic pattern to take on a complexity within its elemental drive and insistency. The kit is miked to enhance volume and requires drummers to use both arms and legs. Prominence is given to the bass drum and the beat is emphatic, in the usual time signature of rock.

      Both its tempo often rather slow and its emphatic stresses make heavy metal unsuitable as a dance music because it is too deliberate. Nonetheless, it involves the listener emotionally and physically. At its inception heavy metal was a slow, even ponderous, music, but by the end of the s a wide range of tempos was permitted. The distinctive bottom sound provided by the bass drum is greatly enhanced by the electronic bass guitar, which performs a more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock music.

      Mainly used as a rhythm instrument, the bass produces a heavily amplified sound. Its contribution to the instrumental mix is what makes heavy metal "heavy. The physical properties of sound are such that very low frequencies require far more Heavy Metal: The Beast that Refuses t o Die 25 amplification than higher frequencies to be heard at the same level of volume. The music can be felt, not only metaphorically, but literally, particularly in the listener's chest. No other instruments are part of the standard code, although keyboards are permitted.

      For example, the historical line that stretches from Deep Purple, through Rainbow, to Dio, which spans the full history of the genre, has made the keyboard integral to the sound. Keyboards provide a fullness that other bands achieve via electronic modifications of the guitar's sound. While keyboards do not violate the heavy metal code, other instruments, such as horns, orchestral stringed instruments, or an accordion would break it.

      Heavy metal is not instrumental music in the sense of the nineteenth-century symphonic style. The heavy metal code always includes a singer. Yet the singer's vocal style has no connection to the tradition of the pop crooner. In heavy metal there is an intimate connection between the vocals and the instruments, with the voice participating as an equal, not as a privileged instrument. The voice is an instrument that challenges the prominence of the guitar. On record and in live performance, heavy metal's sound is the product of multiple inputs.

      Sound technicians adjust the relative strength of each component. Vocalist and guitarist are each accorded importance, but neither is allowed to eclipse the other. The two are dual foci, like the twin foci of an ellipse, around which the music is described. The relationship between the guitar and vocals is one of tension; they dynamically contend with one another for dominance but never allow this continuous competition to result in the defeat of either guitarist or vocalist.

      Like political parties in a twoparty democratic system, guitar and voice must compete and cooperate, getting neither too close to nor too far away from each other. More concerned with the total impact of the sound than with their individual success, the guitarist and vocalist are in an affectionate rivalry with each other. Examples of heavy metal groups with strong dual foci abound. Strong vocalists are always seeking strong guitarists and vice versa.

      The heavy metal vocal is a solitary function, as it is in the blues. But unlike the blues or even blues rock, heavy metal demands the subordination of the voice to the sound as a whole. The heavy metal vocalist is an individual and is not submerged in a vocal group. But the singer is also embedded in the band; the vocalist does not dominate the band and certainly is never its primary excuse for being. The heavy metal code for the singer is distinctive.

      One major requirement is the explicit display of emotionality, which contrasts with the punk vocal principle of the flat, unemotional voice. But not all methods of emotional display are permitted. The plaintive, nasal whine of country music and the falsetto of doo-wop are rejected. The singing is openmouthed, neither gritted nor crooned. The range of emotions is wide, including pain, defiance, anger, and excitement.

      As in other features of the genre, softness, irony, and subtlety are excluded. Simon Frith's understanding of rock vocals is especially relevant to heavy metal vocals because of their strong emotional component: "The tone of voice is more important. We can thus identify with a song whether we understand the words or not, whether we already know the singer or not, because it is the voice-not the lyrics-to which we immediately respond. It is amplified not merely by electronic devices, but by a robust set of lungs and vocal chords.

      Special sounds, especially screams, serve to emphasize the power and the emotionality of the voice. The sounds are evocative and are probably derived from the blues "shouters" of the southern-based, post-World War I1 Chicago and Detroit blues traditions. Other singers use an operatic voice, although it cannot be pure toned. There must be a blues-tinged toughness in the voice. Ronnie James Dio's voice, well known in heavy metal circles for fifteen years, is an example of this gritty-operatic option. The heavy metal vocal lacks a mandated accent, such as the punk's cockney or country's southern drawl.

      In addition to its power, the emotionality of the Heavy Metal: The Beast that Refuses t o Die 27 heavy metal vocals is also a sign of authenticity. The importance of authenticity is a residue of the counterculture of the s and is underscored by the dress code and the lyrical themes of the genre.

      High volume, a wailing guitar, a booming bass drum, a heavy bass guitar line, and screaming vocals combine to release a vital power that lends its spirit to any lyrical theme. Popular music, taken as a whole, does not direct attention to any particular feature of a song. As John Street puts it, there is "uncertainty as to what matters in any given song: the sound, the tune, the words or the rhythrn.

      So does rock and roll, as the often parodied assessment makes clear: "It's got a good beat and you can dance to it. I'd give it a 9. For pop as a musical style and for advertising jingles, the melody is what counts. For heavy metal the sound as such-its timbre, its volume, and its feel-is what matters, what defines it as power, giving it inherent meaning. The Visual Dimension The sonic power of heavy metal is supported and enhanced by a wide range of visual artifacts and effects that display its inherent meaning.

      The visual aspect of heavy metal comprises a wide range of items including band logos, album covers, photographs, patches, and T-shirts; live performance visual elements such as concert costumes, lighting - effects, stage sets, and choreography; and magazine artwork and music video images. Heavy metal bands, more than other types of rock groups, use logos. These function in the same way as do the logos of multinational corporations, to provide fast identification and to convey a significant image.

      Logos serve to identify the band both visually and verbally, since most of them present the band's name in stylized lettering. Although each band tends to use a distinctive typeface, there is a similarity among those used in the genre. The code can be specified with reference to both positive and negative rules. Gently rounded typefaces are avoided, since they communicate an image of softness. The ubiquitous Helvetica typeface, which has come to dominate all manner of official signs from interstate high- A [I 1 I!

      Helvetica, lacking embellishments of any kind, suggests neutrality, efficiency, and order, all of which are antithetical to heavy metal. The minimum requirements for a heavy metal typeface are angularity and thickness. The typefaces are more elaborate than mere block lettering, incorporating a multitude of oblique angles and rather squared off ends. Some resemble runic, Teutonic lettering. Typefaces are often embellished with a thunderbolt motif. ACmC has exploited the imagery to the fullest extent, placing a lightning bolt in the middle of its name, which itself refers to electrical currents.

      The group has done albums entitled High Voltage and Powerage. The cover of the latter shows a very jolted Angus, electrical wires emerging from his jacket sleeves, illuminated by an aura of shocking light, which is also seen in his eyes and mouth. The typeface also looks as if it had been shattered by lightning. Logos are used on album covers and the alternative media that accompany recorded music.

      They are also significant features of T-shirts, pins, hats, and patches-the merchandise bought and proudly worn by fans. Like the logos, the album covers serve the dual purpose of identifying the band and projecting its desired image, attitude, and emotion to the potential purchaser.

      On one level, album covers are marketing devices, not unlike the package designs for boxes of cornflakes or cans of soup. They serve to catch the eye of the potential consumer and to identify the product by both genre and specific artist. Heavy metal crystallized in the era when the album was the major medium for recorded music and when the album cover not only performed a marketing function but also served as part of the total aesthetic experience of being part of rock culture.

      Had the genre crystallized in the mids when audio cassettes, with their much smaller surface area, supplanted albums, an important part of the genre would never have emerged. When one flips through rock albums in a store, it is easy to pick out the records released by heavy metal groups. Since the late s Heavy Metal: The Beast that Refuses to Die 29 the code for covers has been known by designers and fans, although not necessarily self-consciously. The album's title is permitted to be in a different, rather ordinary, and smaller typeface, indicating that the band, not the-particular song or album, is the significant unit of discourse in the genre.

      The colors and imagery on the album covers enhance the power conveyed by the logos. The dominant color is black, used especially as the background for the other artwork. Red is the second most important color. The color scheme is not gentle, relaxing, or merely neutral. Rather, it is intense, exciting, or ominous. Whereas the code for pop and country albums mandates photographs of the faces of the performers, the fronts of heavy metal albums are not graced with close-ups of band members.

      The heavy metal code specifies that what is depicted must be somewhat ominous, threatening, and unsettling, suggesting chaos and bordering on the grotesque. This metatheme was expressed in many ways until the late s, when the code narrowed to include the iconography of horror movies, gothic horror tales, and heroic fantasies; technological science fiction imagery; and impressions of studded, black leatherclad biker types. The bands often pose as bikers.

      One Eye Two Eyes And Three Eyes Story - Bedtime Stories - English Fairy Tales

      The album covers, often reproduced on T-shirts, are designed to convey a mood or a sentiment. The visual imagery contextualizes the music or at least provides a clue to its meaning, a reference in terms of which to appreciate it. The impact is similar to that of the stained-glass images and filtered light that contribute to the total experience of listening to church music, or the psychedelic album covers and black-light posters that contributed so much to the acidVisuals are also an integral part of the heavy metal concert extoo, the genre did not create a code de novo but ed existing standards from the musical cultures was embedded.

      Early performers adopted the "auf their time, wearing the "street clothes"-jeans ell-bottoms were in fashion in the early s and T-shirts- 30 Heavy Metal and long hair that served as the everyday uniform of the male members of the youth counterculture in the West. Gaudy Motown finery or British-invasion suits were ruled out as dress-code options. The look carried on the street-tough sensibility favored by the bluesrock crowd.

      As heavy metal crystallized, the dress code was gradually modified. A second option, which became dominant among bands playing larger venues, was the biker look. Marlon Brando, in the movie The Wild One, made the leather jacket a symbol of both masculinity and rebellion. Rebellion against what? Brando's character, Johnny, replies: "Whaddaya got? Pants made of this material allow greater freedom of movement on stage and better display the athletic bodies of the performers, thereby promoting an image of vital power. The initial style of jeans and T-shirts evinced identification with the fans, symbolizing the performers' origins and loyalties.

      The next style, the biker look, meshed with a well-known symbol system of rebellion, masculinity, and outsider status that fit in with the other elements of the heavy metal culture. The members of the audience adopted the look for themselves, imitating their heroes. Spandex emphasizes the vitality that characterizes the genre.

      Male fans have not copied their band heroes by dressing in spandex. Spandex remains stage wear, a costume that serves to distance artists from their audience. Clothing is not the only visual feature of concerts. Heavy metal retained, in a modified form, the elaborate light shows that were first initiated by psychedelic groups in England and in the San Francisco area around The technology of the live venue industry was fully exploited by the genre, adding intense, colorful, and in- Heavy Metal: The Beast that Refuses to Die 31 creasingly varied overhead lighting, along with flash pots, fog, strobes, and laser beams to the concert experience.

      The album colors, featuring a dark or murky border surrounding red-hued images of chaos, resemble the concert aesthetic. The effect augments the sonic values, heightening excitement and the release of vital energy. During the s, music videos provided another medium for the visual expression of heavy metal's sensibility. The code for heavy metal videos was established early in the medium's development. The first rule is that concert footage or a realistic facsimile must be a strong element in the video, However, the medium of television cannot capture the aural power and general excitement of a heavy metal concert.

      TV is too domesticated in its ubiquitous position as a member of the household to simulate the all-inclusive concert experience. Its smaller-than-life screen and low-quality speakers cannot begin to approximate the sensory inputs of the live venue. To compensate for these deficiencies other visual images, sometimes forniing a coherent narrative but generally not, are intercut with shots of the band playing and lip-synching, since the audio portion is not from a live performance, but is recorded in a studio. Visions of sexually provocative women, acts of revolt against figures of authority such as parents or teachers, and scenes of general disorder are usually intercut with the actual or simulated concert scenes.

      The common element in these images is the flouting of middle-class conventions. Rebellion against the dominant culture. The ominous power of the album cover and the vital power of the stage costume is supplemented by the video's rebellious images. The Verbal Dimension The verbal dimension of heavy metal is at least as complex as its aural or visual aspects. As individual words or short phrases, verbal expression works on the levels of signification. The three interdependent sets of expressions forming the verbal dimension are band names, album and song titles, and lyrics. Heavy Metal In part because heavy metal's unit of discourse is not a song or an album, but a band, the name of the band is a significant part of the genre.

      Fans display their genre loyalty with T-shirts and jackets emblazoned with the names of favorite groups. The band name serves both as a marketing device and as an artistic statement. To some degree, especially within heavy metal's subgenres, the band's name provides a context of meaning within which the titles and lyrics are interpreted. A content analysis of the names of heavy metal bands must begin with the fact that the early groups' took or created their names before the genre crystallized.

      Their names reflected general rock codes. The convention for rock bands in the s was to adopt collective names, such as Kinks, Beatles, and Rolling Stones, rather than to create a name based on the personal names of members. Some early heavy metal groups, notably Deep Purple, began their recording careers by playing music that could not be termed heavy metal. UFO, which by the late s was a typical heavy metal band, started out in the early s playing rather spacey, psychedelic music. That accounts for their name, which was also the name of a British club that was "the" place for psychedelic music in the late s.

      Judas Priest, formed in , took a clever name that resonated with the norm of authenticity, of holding to one's principles rather than being seduced by financial rewards. The biblical figure Judas was a priestldisciple of Christ who sold out for forty pieces of silver. Led Zeppelin's name also was not related to the genre of heavy metal.

      The group, formed by Jimmy Page after his departure from the Yardbirds, was originally called the New Yardbirds. According to legend, rhe Who's irrepressible drummer, Keith Moon, heard them and was not impressed. Their music would go down "like a lead zeppelin," he prophesied. Black Sabbath's name, adopted by the group in , is paradigmatic for heavy metal. The band's original name was Earth, reflecting a hippie aesthetic.

      However, Earth was also the name of a cabaret band and booking agents tended to mistake the bands for one another. After a booking rnistake that sent them to a business party at which the audience ex- Heavy Metal: The Beast that Refuses to Die. In that sense, they remain true to the communal symbolism of the s counterculture.

      When a personal name is adopted it is often because a key member has established a reputation in other bands and does not wish to relinquish that fame. But even then the personal name tends to be transformed into a collective noun. A glance at the names of hundreds of heavy metal groups shows some uniformities of signification and sensibility. A significant portion of the names evoke ominous images. Themes of mayhem and cosmic evil are prevalent.

      There is no evidence here of s-era flower power. These names evoke their own sort of ower: the power of the forces of chaos and the power to conjure d play with those forces. Heavy metal album titles and the titles of the songs included on albums reflect the same themes that the names of the bands do. Debut albums tend to eponymous, as is the case in many genres of popular music. The es of albums are similar to the song titles. Indeed, album titles rmally adopt the name of a song within the album. However, the um titles and particularly the bands' names provide a context Heavy Metal in which songs are heard.

      They set up an emotional expectation and function the same way that familiarity with a person colors of that person's words or actions. The lyrics of our any song are meant to be heard rather than read, and this judgment holds especially true for metal. Important words or phrases are more clearly articulated by the singer than the rest of 'the lyrics.

      They are embedded in the section called the chorus, which is repeated several times during the song, and are easily associated with the sensibility created by the band's name. Heavy metal maintains a specific relationship between the voice and the words. As was noted above, heavy. Since vocal power is ordinarily valued more highly than clear enunciation, a song's inherent meaning of vital power is more important than any delineated meaning presented in the lyrics- The singer attempts to project an emotion that is appropriate to the lyrics, avoiding an ironical relation to them.

      Whatever the lyrics say, they are interpreted within a wider context of musical, visual, signifiers. The key phrases enunciated by the singer d and more to convey a song's meaning than do the entire lyrics. The clusters of themes discussed below are based on my listening to about 4, songs within the genre- Confidence in my reading comes from confirmation provided by discussing lyrics with a wide assortment of heavy metal fans, artists, and media personnel, and from reading about heavy metal magazines and all of the academic literature on the genre.

      A closer look, however, reveals significant core thematic complexes for heavy metal lyrics. Some themes are exchded- Broadway-musical optimism, the hopeful sentiment that everything's coming up roses," and the confidence in a brighter tomorrow have no place in heavy metal. Also absent is the hope of the s counterculture that "we can change the world, rearrange the world.

      The verbal sensibility of the genre parallels its aural and visual dimensions. What heavy metal takes seriously is power. Any lyrical theme, even despair or suicide, is empowered by the heavy metal sound. The major themes of heavy metal fall into two clusters defined by a binary opposition: Dionysian and Chaotic. Dionysian experience celebrates the vital forces of life through various forms of ecstasy. It is embodied in the unholy trinity of sex, drugs, and rock and roll- The Dionysian is juxtaposed to a strong emotional involvemerit in all that challenges the order and hegemony of everyday life: monsters, the underworld and hell, the grotesque and horridisasters, mayhem, carnage, injustice, death, and rebellion.

      Both Dionysus the Greek god of wine and Chaos the most ancient god, who precedes form itself are empowered by the sonic values of the music to fight a never-ending battle for the soul of the genre and to join together in combat against the smug security and. The romantic love SO dear to pop music and the more general ntiment of caring and sharing associated with the counterculture re absent in heavy metal lyrics.

      The few songs about relationships I - 36 Heavy Metal describe those that have gone sour long ago. But love in its earthy sense of lust and sex is a staple of the genre. Since heavy metal is not a dance music, it does not make use of the word "dance," which was the main code word for sex in rock and roll and rock music.

      They are essentially and exclusively sexual beings, often groupies such as the Scorpions's "Backstage Queen" or such as those inhabiting Iron Maiden's "22, Acacia Avenue.

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      Sex is an emblem of youthful male Power7 a mark of prowess as well as pleasure. The second member of the trinity of sex, drugs, and rock and roll does not fare so well in the lyrics of heavy metal. Despite the use of drugs by many members of heavy metal's mdience and the Heavy Metal: The Beast that Refuses to Die 37 celebration of drugs in psychedelic music, heavy metal has avoided the theme, perhaps because it does not resonate with the power of the music the way physical sex does.

      The most famous drug song in heavy metal is Black Sabbath's "Sweet Leaf," which was written at a time when marijuana use among youth in the West was at a peak- Appearing on Sabbath's album Master of Reality, the song celebrates marijuana for allowing one to know one's own mind- This lyric is not consistent with heavy metal's sensibility, but instead expresses the aesthetic of psychedelic music. Far more important than drugs and even sex to the Dionysian side of heavy metal's lyrical output is praise of rock music.

      Writing and playing songs extolling the ecstasy that the music provides is ahnost a genre requirement. Most frequently the music is referred to by the terms "rock" or "rock and roll. Will Straw, in his s n d y of the genre, states that the terms refer specifically to the "performance and the energies to be unleashed. Most of the songs, however, imply praise, pledge allegiance to, and defend the music.

      This is not a convention unique to heavy metal, but is a resurfacing of a in rock and roll. It incorporates images of monsters, the grotesque, mayhem, and disaster. It speaks of injustice and of resistance, rebellion, and death. This constellation of themes can be understood as the inversion of the constellation revolving around Eros in countercultural music, which emphasized images of unity.

      That tradition accented the declaration or hope of community, of being at one with others, with the ultimate, and with oneself. For heavy metal, the reality of failed relationships overwhelms the utopia ;f harmonious and hncoerced order. From another perspective, the themes of chaos can be understood in terms of the distinction between the sacred and the profane made famous by Emile Durkheim.

      Gultures differentiate ordinary, everyday life from a transcendent, sacred dimension. Making it a lyrical theme is an act of metaphysical rebellion against the pieties and platitudes of normal society. Quite obviously, then, heavy metal did not invent the discourse of chaos. Indeed, it has borrowed liberally from those cultural forms that already incorporated it. Heavy metal's major source for its imagery and rhetoric of chaos is religion, particularly the JudeoChristian tradition. Although other religions speak to chaos, JudeoChristian culture nourished the creators of heavy metal and their core audience.

      The Book of Revelations, that unique apocalyptic vision in the New Testament, is a particularly rich source of imagery for heavy metal lyrics. Not only are songs such as Iron Maiden's "Number of the Beast" inspired by its verses, but it provides a resonance, a cultural frame of reference, for the imagery of chaos itself. The other religious tradition from which heavy metal draws is paganism, the aggregate of the pre-Christian religions of Northem Europe. Since the use of so-called pagan images is judged by Christians to be a representation of chaos, such use by heavy metal bands serves as acts of rebellion.

      In such songs the sonic power that most strictly defines heavy metal's inherent meaning achieves self-conscious delineation. Whereas Dionysian themes are not unique to heavy metal, references to chaos are a distinctive attribute of the genre. Chaos is used here to refer to the absence or destruction of relationships, which can run from confusion, through various forms of. Respectable society tries to repress chaos. Heavy metal brings its images to the forefront, empowering them with its vitalizing sound.

      It stands against the pleasing illusions of normality, conjuring with the powers of the underworld and making them submit to the order of the music and nothing else. Heavy metal songs that have chaos as their lyrical theme are, at least in a sense, descendants of the blues. Happy talk is eschewed in both cases. Hayakawa's remarks about the older tradition apply to the metal songs that treat chaos: "There is, then, considerable tough-mindedness in the blues-a willingness, often absent in popular songs, to acknowledge the facts of life.

      Consequently, one finds in the blues comments on many problems other than those of 10ve. The lyrics make ample use of this religious-based terminology. The battle on earth between the forces of good and evil is a paradigm for the lyrical treatment of chaos in heavy metal. The songwriter is sometimes on one side, sometimes on the other, and sometimes just describing the excitement, profundity, or tragedy of the struggle.

      Heavy metal's second major source of the rhetoric and imagery of chaos is secular entertainment. Literature, especially the gothic horror stories of Edgar Allen Poe and the fantasy of H. Lovecraft and J. Tolkien, has inspired songs. Iron Maiden's "Murders in the Rue Morgue," for example, is a liberal and literal borrowing from Poe's story of that name. Sword and sorcery and horror movies, from Conan the Barbarian to Friday the 13th' have also inspired heavy metal lyrics. Heavy metal's debt to these movie genres, which themselves increasingly use heavy metal songs on their sound tracks, is particularly noticeable on album covers, posters, and stage sets.

      Some songs merely describe chaos in one or another of its forms. Mayhem, destruction, and carnage are evoked in songs about plane crashes and the human architects of chaos. Another symbol of chaos is the monster. More common to movies than to heavy metal, monsters are anomalies, alien beings that do not fit into the existing order and thus lack relationships to others.

      They disturb normal society and often seek revenge against it. Chaos can also be found in the society at large if one looks beyond its mystifications. In "Twentieth Century Man" the Scorpions depict contemporary life as "a jungle," where people are mesmerized by the media rather than connected to one another by love.

      Allusions to injustice and evil abound in the lyrics of heavy metal songs, indicating breaches of a moral order that the songwriter affirms. Rush comments about the power of the rich "The Big Money" , who control with a "mean streak" and without "soul. Judas Priest in "Savage" repeatedly demands to know what they have done to "deserve such injustice. Hell, as both the home of the devil and the place of punishment for those who transgress, is used in heavy metal lyrics as a synonym for chaos itself. While many of the songs about chaos are simply descriptive, others contain responses to it.

      Sometimes those responses are earnest pleas directed against the forces of destruction and sometimes they are expressions of playful delight in the imagery. Calls to rebellion, such as Rainbow's "Kill the King" and Krokus's "Eat the Rich," betoken symbolic resistance to injustice. Judas Priest defends "Breaking the Law" as a response to wrongs and injuries suffered at the hands of the powerful. Weaker responses to chaos are plentiful. In a song detailing the tribulations of a persecuted pariah group, the American Indians, Iron Maiden cautions them to "Run to the Hills.

      This sense of not feeling connected to others, of being a "Stranger in a Strange Land" Iron Maiden , is itself a manifestation of chaos. Chaos is not only "out there," but also located inside ourselves. When it becomes too powerful, it drives us crazy. Heavy metal lyrics are full of images of mental illness, of disorder within. Boundary words, terms that are applied both to external chaos and to mental illness, ch as "confusion" and "derangement," indicate the interpenetraof the external world and our inner being.

      The extreme reaction of the weak and vulnerable to chaos, external or internal, is suicide and death itself. Death is the extinguishing of relations. Since order means relationship among things, death is ultimate chaos. Judas Priest's "Beyond the Realms of Death" describes the despair of someone cut off from the world. Venomously, the person defends his decision to cut himself off from the living. It is his escape from a world so full of "sin" that it is "not worth living in. This focus on vulnerability to the horrors of chaos is a very significant feature of traditional heavy metal.

      It became the centerpiece of thrash metal in the late s. The possible range of responses to chaos, which run from defiance, through rebellion and flight, to madness and suicide, all privilege the power of disorder. The lyrics indicate that despite human efforts to create order, their endeavors will be frustrated sooner or later. That judgment is presented with all of the power of the music behind it, fostering a sense that one is at least momentarily saved from despair by identifying with the truth of things.

      There is a deeper truth than the one presented by the respectable world. To accept it is to be empowered. Chaos is deprived of much of its seriousness when its imagery and rhetoric become occasions for play. The attitude of playing with disorder is not a religious commitment to "Running with the Devil," but a delight in a sense of vitality that refuses to be repressed and suppressed. It symbolizes a refusal to conform to rules of respectability that repress vitality or to submit to those who wish to exert their domination over others.

      This reaction to chaos is Dionysian, sublimating it into pleasure through textual play and vindicating the power of art. One of the most frequent terms in the lyrics of heavy metal songs, whatever their themes, is night. It is a symbol that is rich in meaning and has been employed by creators of culture working the high or the low road from the beginnings of literature. Night is a time of danger, obscurity, and mystery because in the dark of night the Heavy Metal: The Beast that Refuses to Die.

      But it is also the time for lovers and for bacchanalian revelry. Motley Criie's album Too Fast for Love, released in , indicates that its creators understood the verbal code. Of the album's nine songs, eight specifically mention the word "night" in the lyrics. Since the lyrics of heavy metal songs center on evocative phrases, the importance of the word "night," with its rich evocative heritage, makes it a mediator between the two thematic figures of Dionysus and Chaos.

      Under the cover of night everything that is repressed by the respectable world can come forth. What is that respectable world? For heavy metal's youthful audience that world is the adult world. It is no accident that those who testified against heavy metal at United States Senate hearings in were representatives of parental interest groups PMRC and PTA , fundamentalist ministers, and physician-owners of psychiatric hospitals specializing in the treatment of adolescents. Heavy metal's inherent power, tied to rhetoric and imagery that puts forward themes that adult society tries to repress, is an act of symbolic rebellion, another chapter in generational conflict.

      The Dionysian themes and Chaos themes form a bricolage that is given coherence by the fact that both complexes conjure with powers that the adult world wishes to keep at bay and exclude from symbolic representation. It is as if heavy metal's opponents cannot stand to see and hear what they themselves have repressed paraded around them with joyous noise.

      In its final expression of power, heavy metal inverts and plays with the rhetoric of pastoral power, depriving it of unquestioned authority. It uses the rhetoric of the transgression of the sacred with abandon, redefining what is sacred and what is profane. The established genre then becomes a predecessor of a new one, just as it had drawn from predecessors in its own formative stage.

      Heavy metal has not followed Byrnside's trajectory. After going through phases of formation and crystallization, it did not become mannered. But neither did it simply perpetuate its golden age. Instead, after a spurt of growth, it began to fragment. Its main line, described in the section above, continued, but new lines were added that departed from some of the codes of heavy metal, but still acknowledged a close enough kinship to their predecessor to prevent them from becoming altogether new genres. Rather than being supplanted by new genres, heavy metal spawned subgenres. During this process, it became part of a wider genre complex, similar, though on a smaller scale, to the vast genre complex of rock, in which it erupted.

      The period was marked by an explosion of new heavy metal bands on the British scene. S6No single musical or lyrical style was associated with the New Wave: each band tended to be rather unique. What all the new bands did share was a general heavy metal sensibility, along with youthfulness and a strong emphasis on visual elements. While many of the new bands continued the established heavy metal tradition, some tended to create specialized niches within the genre. The specialists tended to take elements of the heavy metal code and emphasize one or more of these features to the exclusion or at least the diminution of other elements.

      Two of these groups, Iron Maiden and Def Leppard, went on to achieve great success. Others, such as Venom, persisted with a more narrow following. The majority faded to black, although even some of these, for example, Diamond Head, left their mark on bands that followed them. During the early s many new bands were formed all over the world, and some of those that had been around for years were given a better hearing.

      The rock press duly took note of this phenomena, calling it a heavy metal "revival," "renaissance," and the like. For example, a writer in Creem stated in October that the genre "had pulled a Jesus Christ and was back in the saddle again. Even the classic metal bands such as Judas Priest found themselves playing to much larger audiences. The media organizations, always alert Heavy Metal: The Beast that Refuses to Die - 45 to audience tastes, became more open to metal bands. The most public signal of the growth in popularity of the genre was US '83, a festival sponsored by Steve Wosniak in California.

      One of the three days of concerts was devoted to heavy metal. That day drew a far larger audience than did either of the other two days of the festival28 The increase in numbers and variety of heavy metal bands in the early s eventually gave rise to a fragmentation of the genre. That is, the variety of bands began to close ranks around several sets of rules. By two major subgenres were in place. Each emphasized a different feature of traditional heavy metal.

      One of them privileged the melody and the other stressed the rhythm. Heavy metal bands in the s may have emphasized one of these musical elements more than the other, but they were heard and judged within the overall code of the genre. For example, the melodic and rhythmic elements were taken to extremes by the Scorpions and Motorhead, respectively. These bands were understood to be working out the possibilities within the genre's code, rather than challenging or attempting to alter it. In the s no segregation of styles in terms of concert bookings, fans, and fanzines was apparent.

      All this changed during the s. It was as if traditional heavy metal was a solution of various elements that finally became supersaturated and began to crystallize. The fragmentation of the s included a lyrical as well as a musical component split: the melodic specialization took up the Dionysian legacy whereas the more rhythmically oriented level closed ranks around the legacy of e is no legitimate, established authority, like the French Acadthat decides on the correct name for a musical style or genre, there is no consensus on what to call the subgenres that cryslzed within heavy metal.

      For the purposes of this analysis I will r to the subgenre that emphasizes the melodic element as "lite al. Lite metal has also been referred to as 46 Heavy Metal "melodic metal" and "pop metal. These epithets include "poseurs," "false metal," "nerf metal," "poodle bands," "glam," and "commercial rnetal. The code of authenticity, which is central to the heavy metal subculture, is demonstrated in many ways. Of all criteria-highly emotional voice, street not crackejack clothes, and "serious" themes-lite metal fails the test of authenticity.

      The phrase "poodle bands" directs attention to the performers' hairstyles, Members of lite metal bands tend to have "big hair," which is ornately cut, moussed, and blowdried. The development of lite metal was greatly aided by MTV, which, at least during its first few years, seemed to find extravagant hairstyles a good reason to include a band's video in its rotation, regardless of its musical style. Likewise, the term "glam" is a refits rejection or alteration of the black, working-class garb or fashions that were prescribed by the heavy metal code.

      Chuc notes that the glittery fashion of such artists as Prince and B George was central to rock in general when lite metal erupte "The glamming of heavy metal has coincided with a decided glitt influence all over the rock spectrum. It i Heavy Metal: The Beast that Refuses to Die 47 metal, but not so much metal sound that they will be detested by those who are turned off by traditional heavy metal music.

      Power ballads have been played on radio stations with formats that typically exclude heavy metal. They are crossovers, standing inside and outside the genre simultaneously. They sell albums to a nonmetal audience and enlist part of that audience into the true metal audience. Power ballads are similar in effect to the cover versions of black songs that Pat Boone and other white performers sang, in the process eventually bringing a wider, whiter, audience to rock and roll.

      The hard-rock format, a radio staple that passes in and out of wide popularity, found lite metal to be an acceptable addition to the sweeter Led Zeppelin tunes that had always been one of its features. Many lite metal bands have refused the metal designation altogether, opting for the "hard rock" alternative. Others have encouraged the use of both designations, one being aimed at e media industry and the other at fans. Lite metal's verbal elements are more concerned with love and addressed to a girl, which is a convention of pop music that es are even more prominent in lire metal.

      This subgenre also esses the theme of Dionysian release, with the most intoxicating 48 - Heavy Metal not corny; 'soft,' not 'hard' country music. The music's appeal was broadened by removing features that for one reason or another only spoke to a minority of listeners. A more "commercial" sound resulted and the success of the operation was confirmed in the market. Fans and critics may argue about the cultural merits of such musical transformations, but their financial triumphs are indisputable. Its dominant departure from heavy metal is an increase in tempo.

      As was the case for lite metal, there are many names for this subgenre. One is "power metal," which is used more in Britain than in the United States. This term underscores continuities with the heavy metal code rather than alterations in it. Power is the basic inherent meaning of heavy metal's sound and the major delineated meaning of its look and lyrics. The term "underground" refers to a social, not a musical, dimension-the pride of an exclusive subculture that rejects mass appeal.

      But like all forms of fundamentalism, speed metal is at least as much a new beginning as it is a continuation of what it seeks to revive. On business grounds alone it deserved to be called "underground. But it also followed in a line already present in heavy metal's golden age. Moreover, speedlthrash bears the trace of the punk explosion. Punk began in England in and reached California four years later. It spawned hardcore, which was particularly strong on both coasts of the United States and bore many resemblances to the erupting speedlthrash style.

      Groups such as the Misfits, which was alternately called a horrormetal band and a horror-punk band, showed the possibilities for a blending of punk and metal. That is, tempo nguish speedlthrash as a subgenre. Musically nt meaning of power with heavy metal. Much of its rupture with its forebear is in the sphere of delineated meaning.

      It pares ntastic, the overblown, and the heroic elements an obvious similarity between speedlthrash's tal and the contestation, initiated by Martin lvin, against the Catholic Church, Both movethe established form had become corrupt e and both supported a return to the essential re of all adornment. In their clothes, their relowers, and their discourse, speedlthrash bands d the early Protestant leaders parallel one another. Similarly, the Protestant ministers exchanged the ornate clothing of church notables for a simple uniform and huge, ornate cathedrals for smallscale, simple churches.

      The distance between the artists and their fans was physically, emotionally, and attitudinally erased, just as the Protestants narrowed the distance between the minister and the communicants. Speedlthrash is a movement to go back to the basics, just as Protestantism stressed a return to biblical essentials. It specializes in chaos.

      Sex is rarely mentioned, alcohol and drugs are judged to be bad rather than pleasurable, and, with a few exceptions, such as Exodus's mosh-pit anthem, "Toxic Waltz," there are no songs in praise of the music. Themes of lust and romance are ceded to lite metal. Speedlthrash bends the discourse on chaos into specific images and cultivates an explicit rather than allusive lyrical style. It eschews the mystery, the nonspecific ominousness, that characterizes many heavy metal songs. Instead, lyrics focus on the bleak but concrete horrors of the real or possibly real world: the isolation and alienation of individuals, the corruption of those in power, and the horrors done by people to one another and to the environment.

      As the code of the speedlthrash subculture crystallized, groups took names that embodied it. These appellations are suitable within the traditional code of heavy metal; speedlthrash is merely more restrictive than its progenitor. Some of the bands in this subgenre introduce humor, political radicalism, and irony into their lyrics. Nuclear Assault's lyricist John Connelly claims that he now leaves no room for misinterpretation.

      Some of his early lyrics that were intended to be humorous had been taken the wrong way. And Justice for All, is a prime concern of speedlthrash lyrics. Environmental destruction has almost become as standard a theme for this subgenre as sex is for lite metal. The distance from Dionysian themes is probably best exemplified by songs about drugs and alcohol. No party-hearty attitude here: the songs condemn drinking and driving, as, for example, in the song "Emergency" by Nuclear Assault.

      There are even songs championing animal rights. Speedlthrash songs are replete with tales of alienation, such as Metallica's "Harvester of Sorrows. Indeed, the concern with suicide and death has become so strong that the speedlthrash subgenre has spawned a subgenre of its own, death metal. This style extracts an even narrower subset of traditional heavy metal themes than speedlthrash does, taking only the negative ultimates of death, gore, and evil as such.

      Death metal's horror movie depictions are the stuff that "whiten mother's hair. Instrumentally, they use low-tuned guitars. Verbal cues alert one to this specialty.